Indian Air Force

The Indian Air Force was officially established on 8 October 1932.
India Air Force LogoThe past 75 years have been eventful for Indian Air Force (IAF) from a flight of 'Wapitis' in 1932, to the fourth largest, professionally acclaimed, strategic Air Force responsible for guarding Nation's vital interests. From 1948 to Kargil, the IAF has always fielded wining capabilities. IAF's professional and prompt operations in peace time, at home and abroad and in peacekeeping, have earned many accolades.

The first five pilots commissioned into the Indian Air Force were H C Sircar, Subroto Mukerjee, Bhupendra Singh, A B Awan and Amarjeet Singh. A sixth officer, S N Tandon had to revert to Ground duties as he was too short. All of them were commissioned as ''Pilot Officers'' in 1933. Subroto Mukerjee later went on to become the IAF's first Indian Chief of Air Staff. Subsequent batches inducted before World_War_2 included Aspy Engineer, K K Majumdar, Narendra, R H D Singh, S N Goyal, Baba Mehar Singh, Prithpal Singh and Arjan Singh.
The Indian Air Force is headed by Chief of Air Staff with its headquarters at New Delhi. He is assisted by six Principal Staff Officers, Vice Chief of Air Staff, Deputy Chief of Air Staff, Air Officer Incharge Administration, Air Officer Incharge Maintenance, Air Officer Incharge Personnel and Training and Inspector General Flight Safety and Inspection.
1Western commandNew Delhi
2Central commandAllahabad
3Eastern commandShillong
4South western commandJodhpur
5Training commandBangaluru
6Maintenance commandNagpur
7Southern commandThiruvananthapuram
The Air force combat fleet is made up of 45 squadrons consists a variety of fighters, fighter-bombers, fighter interceptors, bombers and transport and logistics support aircraft.
  1. Air chief Marshal
  2. Air Marshal
  3. Air Vice Marshal
  4. Air Commodore
  5. Group Captain
  6. Wing Commander
  7. Squardron Leader
  8. Flt. Lieutenant
  9. Flying officers
Official Website of Indian Air Force

Indian Army


Indian ArmyThe Indian Army is the world's second largest army in terms of military personnel. The basic responsibility of the Army is to safeguard the territorial integrity of the nation against external aggressio. In addition, the Army is often required to assist the civil administration during internal security disturbances and in the mainntenance of law and order, in organising relief operations during natural calamities like floods, earthquakes and cyclones and in the maintenance of essential services.
The Indian Army is one of the finest armies in the world. Modernisation and upgradation of Army is a continuous process to keep Armed Forces ready to meet any challenge of tomorrow. It is based on fiver years plans. Focus and core areas of modernisation has been:-
  • Improvement in the Fire Power and increased Mobiliy
  • All Weather Battle Field Surveillance capability
  • Night Fighting capabilities
  • Enhace capability of Special Force
  • Capability for Network Centric Warfare
  • NBC Protection
Army has its headquarters in New Delhi. 
It is head by Chief of the Army Staff and assisted by the Vice-Chief of the Army Staff and seven other Principal Staff Officers, namely, two Deputy Chief of Army Staff, Ajutant General, Quarter Master General, Master General of Ordinance, Military Secretary and Engineer-in-Chief. The army has following commands
1Western commandChandigarh
2Eastern commandKolkata
3Northern command56 APO
4Southern commandPune
5Central commandLucknow
6Army Training CommandShimla
7South Western CommandJaipur
Each under a General officer Commanding-n-Chief of the rank of a Lieutant-General. The Major Static Formation are divided into Areas, Independent Sub-Areas and sub-areas. Area is commanded by a General Officer Commanding of the rank of a Major General and an Independent Sub-Area and sub-area by a Brigadier. 

Indian army is divided broadly into two main categories:- 
  1. Arms
  2. Services
Indian Army consists of following ranks:-

  1. General
  2. Lt. General
  3. Major General
  4. Brigadier
  5. Colonel
  6. Lt. Colonel
  7. Major
  8. Captain
  9. Lieutenant

Indian Navy


Indian NavyThe Indian Navy, by virtue of its capabilities, strategic positioning and robust presence in the Indian Ocean Region (IOR), has been a catalyst for peace, tranquility and stability in the IOR. It has been engaged other maritime nations, extending hand of friendship and co-operation.

On India attaining Independence, the Royal Indian Navy consisted of 32 ageing vessels suitable only for coastal patrol, along with 11,000 officers and men. The senior officers were drawn from the Royal Navy, with R Adm ITS Hall, CIE, being the first Post-independence Commander-in-Chief. The prefix 'Royal' was dropped on 26 January 1950 with India being constituted as a Republic. The first Commander-in-Chief of the Indian Navy was Adm Sir Edward Parry, KCB, who handed over to Adm Sir Mark Pizey, KBE, CB, DSO in 1951. Adm Pizey also became the first Chief of the Naval Staff in 1955, and was succeeded by V Adm SH Carlill, CB, DSO.
On 22 April 1958 V Adm RD Katari assumed office as the first Indian Chief of the Naval Staff.
Indian Navy is headed by Chief of Navel Staff with headquarters at New Delhi. He is assisted by Vice Chief of Naval Staff, Chief of Personnel, Chief of Material and Deputy Chief of Naval Staff. The Navy is organised into following commands:-
1Eastern commandVishakhapatnam
2Southern commandKochi
3Western commandMumbai
  1. Navy
  2. Admiral
  3. Vice Admiral
  4. Read Admiral
  5. Commodore
  6. Captain
  7. Commander
  8. Lt Commander
  9. Lieutenant
  10. Sub-Lieutenant
The Indian Navy is divided into the following broad categories
  • Administration
  • Logistics and Material
  • Training
  • The Fleets
  • The Naval Aviation
  • and
  • The Submarine Arm.
Official Website of Indian Army

Indian Coast Guard


Indian Coast Guard LogoEmergence of the Coast Guard in India on 01 Feb 1977 as a new service was the result of an awareness that had been growing for some time in the Government for the requirement to enforce National Laws in the waters under national jurisdiction and ensure safety of life and property at sea. The Coast Guard is responsible for surveillance of the Indian territorial waters and the Indian Exclusive Economic Zone to prevent poaching, smuggling and other illegal activities; to conduct search and rescue operations; to protect and preserve marine environment.

The Indian Coast Guard is the fourth service created to guard Republic of India's vast coastline. It was created on 19 August 1978 as an independent entity as per the Coast Guard Act. Indian Coast Guard is an Armed forces of India and, ICG is not a part of the Indian Paramilitary Forces. 
The Primary duty of Indian Coast Guard is :
  • To protect our ocean and offshore wealth including Oil, Fish and Minerals.
  • Protect the artificial Islands and off-shore installations.
  • To assist Mariners in distress and safeguard life and property at sea.
  • To enforce Maritime Laws with respect to sea, shipping, poaching, smuggling and narcotics.
  • To preserve marine environment and ecology and to protect rare species.
  • To collect scientific data
  • To assist Indian Navy during war situation

Its Bases
  • 3 Regional headquarters at Mumbai, Chennai and Port Blair
  • 1 District Headquarters in each of the nine coastal states and 2 in the Union territories of Andaman and Nicobar Islands and Lakshadweep Islands.
  • 4 Coast Guard Stations, one each at Vadinar, Okha, Tuticorin and Mandapam.
  • It also has aerodromes in Daman and Chennai
  • Air Enclaves at Goa, Kolkata and Port Blair.
Official Website of Indian Air Force

Economy of India


Indian Economy is Twelfth largest in the world and fourth largest by purchasing power parity. In the 21st century, India is an emerging economic power having vast human and natural resources.
Economic Growth: Economic growth has been defined as "an increase in real terms of the output of goods and services that is sustained over a long period of time, measured in terms of value added". Economic growth is a dynamic concept and refers to continuous increase in output.
Factors in Economic Growth: The four factors contributing to growth are
  1. human resources (labour supply, education, discipline, motivation)
  2. national resources (land, minerals, fuels, environmental quality)
  3. capital formation (machines, factories, roads)
  4. technology (science, engineering, management, entrepreneurship)
Growth and Development
While the term economic growth referees to increases over time in a country's real output of goods and services i.e. product per capita, the term economic development, in contrast, is more comprehensive. It implies progressive changes in the socio-economic structure. Economic growth and development frequently used interchangeably in economic literatures actually are not identical technically.
Difference Between Economic Growth and Economic Development
Economic GrowthEconomic Development
  1. It indicates quantitative improvement in the economic progress of a country
  2. It shows growth in natural income and per capita income over time
  3. A country may grow but it may not develop
  1. It indicates qualitative improvement in the economic progress of a country
  2. It shows not only a sustained increase in national and per capita income but also qualitative changes which leads to higher standard of living.
  3. Economic development includes the notion of economic growth.
Economic Growth = Size of output (A Quantitative aspect)
Economic Development = Size of output + Welfare (A Qualitative aspect)
Gross National Happiness (GNH) : The concept of gross national happiness has been introduced by king of Bhutan, Jigme Singya Wang Chuck, a tiny kingdom on the northern borders of India. The GNH aims to ensure that prosperity is shared across protecting the environment and maintaining a responsive the word happiness, more like what the signers of the Declaration of Independence had in mind when they included the "pursuit of happiness" as an inalienable right equal to liberty and life itself. The index is designed to challenge the well-established indices of countries development. HDI and GDP which are seen as not taking sustainability into account.
GNH Ranking
3Costa Rica66.00
9El Salvador61.66
10St. Vincent of the Grenading61.37
India is the 90th happiest country in the world, behind Bhutan(13), China(31), Sri Lanka(13) and Bangladesh(41). It is ahead of Pakistan(112) and Russia(172). 
Seven of the top 10 happiest countries are from western democracies, while countries in Asia, known for their strong cultural values, family ties and collective identities surprisingly scored low-China(31), Japan(95) and Thailand(32)
Millennium Development Goals to be Achieved by 2015
  1. Achieve universal primary education
  2. Reduce child mortality
  3. Improve maternal health
  4. Combat HIV/AIDS, Malaria and other diseases
  5. Ensure environmental sustainability
  6. Develop a global patnership for development
  7. Eliminate gender disparities in primary and secondary education, preferably by 2005, and in all levels of education by 2015
  8. Halve the proportion of the people suffering from Hunger.

Five Year Plans

First plan(1951 to 56)
  • It was based on Harrod-Damor model
  • Community development programme was launched in 1952
  • Emphasised technical, price stability, power and transport
  • It was more than a success, because of good are blessed in the last two years
  • Second plan(1956 to 61)
  • Also called Mahalanobis plan after its chief architect.
  • Its objective was rapid industrialisation
  • Advocated use imports which led to emptying of funds leading to foreign loans. It shifted basic emphasis from agriculture to industry far too soon. During this plan, price level increased by 30% against a decline of 13% during the first plan
  • Third plan(1961 to 66)
  • At its conception time, it was felt that Indian economy has entered it takeoff stage. Therefore, a was to make India a self reliant and self generating economy.
  • Also, it was realised from the experience of first two planes that agriculture could be given the top priority to suffice the requirements of export and industry.
  • Complete failure due to unforeseen misfortunes viz. Chinese aggression(1962), Indo Pak war (1962) , Indo Pak war (1965 ), Seve rest drought to 100 years (1965 to 66)
  • Three annual plans(1966 to 69)
  • Plan holiday for three years. The prevailing crisis in agriculture and serious food shortage necessitated the emphasis on agriculture during the annual plans.
  • During these plans a whole new agriculture strategy involving widespread of distribution of highly-yielding varieties of seeds, the extensive use of fertilisers, exploitation of irrigation potential and soil conservation was put into action to tide over the crisis in agriculture production.
  • During the annual plans, the economy basically absorbed the shocks given during the third plan, making way for a planned growth
  • Fourth plan(1969 to 74)
  • Main emphasis on agriculture's growth rate so that chain reaction can start
  • Fared well in the first two years with record production, last three years failure cause of poor monsoon.
  • Had to tackle the influx of Bangladeshi refugees before and after 1971 Indo Pak war
  • Fifth plan (1974 to 79 )
  • the fifth plan repaired and launched by D.D Dhar proposed to achieve two main objectives viz removal of poverty(Garibi Hatao) and attainment of self reliance, through promotion of high rate, better distribution of income and a very significant growth in the domestic rate of saving.
  • the plan was terminated in 1978 (instead of 1979 ) when Janta government came to the power.
  • Rolling plan(1978 to 80)
  • there were two sixth plans. One by Genta government.(For 78 to 73) which was in operation for two years only and the other by Congress government when it returned to power in 1980
  • the Janata government plan is also called Rolling plan
  • Sixth plan(1980 to 85)
  • Objectives: Increase in national income, modernisation of technology, ensuring continuous decrease in poverty and unemployment, population control through family planning etc.
  • Seventh plan(1985 to 90)
  • the seventh plan emphasized policies and programmes which aimed at rapid growth in food grains production, increased employment opportunities and productivity within the framework of basic tenants of planning.
  • It was a great success, the economy recorded 6% growth rate against the targeted 5%
  • Eighth plan(1992 to 97)
  • The eighth plan was postponed by two years because of political upheavals at the Centre and it was launched after a worsening balance of payment position and inflation during 1990-91
  • the plan undertook various drastic policy measures to combat the bad economic situation and to undertake an annual average growth of 5.6%
  • some of the main economic performance during eighth plan period were rapid economic growth, high growth in exports and imports, improvement in trade and current account deficit.
  • Ninth plan(1997 to 2002)
  • Tt was developed in the context of four important dimensions: quality of life, generation of productive employment, a regional balance and self-reliance.
  • Tenth plan (2002 to 2007)
  • Its objectives included achieving the growth rate of 8%, reduction of poverty ratio to 20% by 2007 and 210% by 2012, universal access to primary education by 2007, increase in literacy rate to 72% within the plan period and to 80% by 2012
  • Eleventh plan(2007 to 2012)
  • Accelerate growth rate of GDP from 8% to 10% and then maintain at 10% in the 12th plan in order to double per capita income by 2016-17
  • Increase agricultural GDP growth rate of 4% per year to ensure a broader spread of benefits.
  • Reduce drop out rates of children from elementary school from 52.2% in 2003-04 to 20% by 2011-12
  • Increase the literacy rate for persons of faith seven years or more to 85%
  • reduce infant mortality rate(MR) 28 and maternal mortality ratio(MMR) to 1 part 1000 live births.
  • raise the sex ratio for age group 0-6 to 935 by 2011-12 and to 950 by 2016-17
  • Ensure electricity connection to all village and BPL households by 2009 and the round-the-clock power by the end of the plan
  • increase forest and free cover by the five percentage points
  • PlanTargetActual
    First Plan(1951-56)2.9%3.6%
    Second Plan(1956-61)4.5%4.3%
    Third Plan(1961-66)5.6%2.8%
    Fourth Plan(1969-74)5.7%3.3%
    Fifth Plan(1974-79)4.4%4.8%
    Sixth Plan(1980-85)5.2%6.0%
    Seventh Plan(1985-90)5.0%6.0%
    Eighth Plan(1992-97)5.6%6.8%
    Ninth Plan(1997-2002)6.5%5.4%
    Tenth Plan(2002-2007)8.0%
    Eleventh Plan(2007-2012)9.0%

    Poverty and unemployment


    • Poverty line is defined on the basis of nutritional standards. The list calorie intake is fixed at 2400 Cal/person/day for rural area and 2100 Cal/person/day for urban area. The people below these nutritional is an income standards are considered to be below the poverty line(BPL).
    • Presently 24.4% population in India is below poverty line. It is 24.36% in ruler India and 24.50% in urban areas. National Sample survey Organisation(NSSO) conducts this survey.
    • Unemployment simply means a situation when able and willing people are not getting jobs as per their own capabilities
    Green Revolution
    • Indian Green Revolution is associated with the use of HYVS(highly yielding variety seeds), chemical fertilisers and new technology which led to a sharp rise in agriculture production during the middle of 1960.
    • The term "Green Revolution" was given by American scientists, Dr William Gande.
    • During the middle of 60s, Indian agriculture scientist developed a number of new highly yielding varieties of wheat by processing wheat seeds imported from Mexico. A similar improvement in variety of rice was also observed.
    • The credit of this goes not only to Nobel Laureate Dr. Norman Borlaug, but also to Dr MS Swaminathan
    Yellow revolutionoil seeds
    White revolutionmilk
    Blue RevolutionFish
    Pink revolutionShrimp/Meat
    Brown Revolutionnonconventional energy resources
    Grey revolutionwool
    Golden Revolutionhorticulture

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